Monday, 17 October 2011

References for Participation in Occupation II blog content

Arendt, H. (1958, p.7).  The human condition.  Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Caulton, R. & Dickson, R.  (2007).  What’s going on? Finding an explanation for what we do.  In J. Creek & A. Lawson-Porter (Eds.), Contemporary issues in occupational therapy (pp. 87-114).  Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gura, T. S. (2010). Mindfulness in occupational therapy education. Occupational therapy in health care, 24(3), 266-273. Retrieved from

Law, M. (2002). Participation in the occupation of everyday life. The American journal of occupational therapy, 56(6), 640-647.

Slagle, C. E. (2006). The world of everyday occupation: real people, real lives. The American journal of occupational therapy, 60(6), 627-639.

Wednesday, 5 October 2011

End of story

Entry 7 scrap-booking

Additional information which is worth reading to conclude the topic of scrap-booking)

This is my last activity engagement. I hope you enjoyed reading about my feelings and experiences that this paper facilitated.

It was a Sunday when my daughter and I decided to scrapbook. We were excited to do this together, however we had to set the table and the equipment so that we could do his activity. Together we worked on and decided on the type of background that we used on the scrapbook page, and then we negotiated on the photos that we were using. 

As we were doing this, we departed to a past time the photos related to. It was a great opportunity to find out my daughter’s perception and feelings about the time we spent in Tauranga a few months ago. While she was shaping the corners of the photos, I was mainly playing the role of a facilitator. My daughter was complaining that the glue stuck to her finger, therefore, as a protective mother, I stepped in and helped her out by taking the photos out of her hands. Now I think back and I reflect on the fact that I should not be overly protective and change the environment for my daughter. This is because I can reduce the opportunities for her to deal with a variety of situations that could slow down her development. This makes me think whether it is ethical to interfere with someone’s opportunity to develop certain skills. 

The scrapbook started to look really good and we both had a good feeling about doing things together.

Tuesday, 4 October 2011

Me and my scrapbooking

Entry 6 scrap-booking

Scrap-booking can be done both as labor and as work. Labor is defined by Arendt (1958, p.7) as “…the activity which corresponds to the biological process of the human body”, and work as “…the activity which corresponds to the unnaturalness of human existence”.

There is a large scrapbooking community in New Zealand, sharing a website called “creative memories”. They see scrapbooking as labor, in the sense that they do it as business. They may also consider this work, because it is a pleasant way of spending time productively, on a spiritual level. 

Scrapbooking as labor means nothing at this certain point in my life. I am an artist. I mostly do scrapbooking as a way of expressing my creativity, and not to fulfil financial needs. The occupation of scrapbooking comes under craft. Craftspeople in the community are makers of stories that transmit their own feelings and emotions.
This brings an image of continuity to my mind, history in images of the people I love. Whenever I make a scrapbook page, I feel like I capture moments in my family’s lives that will never return, therefore scrapbooking is one way that I can hold those moments still. At the same time, I feel like these moments will be re-lived by my children and their children when I will be long gone. 

If I view scrapbooking as work, if someone took it away from me I would feel I am losing my balance. My connection with my daughter wouldn’t be developed on such a deep level, and documenting our memories would lose its essence.

Sunday, 25 September 2011

Affordances continue

Entry 5 scrap-booking

When we talk about affordances, we think about how the activity can express beauty.

Scrap-booking is a creative activity, with a high potential to transmit not only a beautiful feeling, but also an attractive result. The completion of one page of scrap-booking takes about 3 hours. The time is distributed between choosing the photos, shaping them so that they can fit and tell the story, and decorating the collage with special sparkles, glitter or stickers. The results are always pleasant to look at and charming.

Unfortunately, my daughter’s cat went missing a while ago. Having photos of her in our scrapbook helps us feel connected with her, even though she is gone. Also, most of our family lives in Romania. We can show photos of them to our friends, giving them a good insight about our spiritual connections. It also keeps us united with our home land and roots.

More recently, I came home one day to find a scrapbook page made for me by my daughter. She expressed her love for me by choosing meaningful photos, and also a little poem written on the page:
“For my mum, from Andrada:
I love you,
I did this when you were at work.

This will always be a heart-warming memory, just like every page that reminds us of our family.

Scrap-booking does not have very strong or well-set physical requirement. The most important are the fine motor skills that help organising the work so that the end result is tidy and up to my expectations.


Entry 4 scrap-booking

 “Work provides an ‘artificial’ world of things, distinctly different from all natural surroundings. Within its borders each individual life is housed, while this world itself is meant to outlast and transcend them all” (Arendt, 1958, p. 7).

Scrap-booking is an activity that turns a world of feelings, memories, expressing oneself into a history that can be passed onto the next generation. I do this activity with my daughter, hoping that this will strengthen our relationship. It is a special way of teaching and showing her the past, here and now, as reference for her future. At times, it gets a bit frustrating when she uses the tools differently from me, and this makes me worry that she might hurt herself. This takes communication to a deeper level, as I express my love for her.

Scrapbooking connects me with my daughter, and we learn how to put together related photos to create albums in which photos lead to a story. For instance:

This is the scrapbook that I made.

This is the photo
that I put in the scrapbook that I made.
This is my daughter                                                      
who is in the photo
that I put in the scrapbook that I made.

This is the cat
that plays with my daughter
who is in the photo
that I put in the scrapbook that I made.

This is my father
who feeds the cat
that plays with my daughter
who is in the photo
that I put in the scrapbook that I made.

Burden: because scrap-booking is mainly a relaxing activity, there is no pressure of getting it right other than making sure nothing is damaged in the process. It is about having fun with my family and friends.
Joy: scrap-booking is about me making other people happy, helping them enjoy the experience. It is also a great opportunity for my daughter to improve on her motor skills and process skills which in return give her a feeling of achieving something beautiful. 
The only concern that may rise from my conscience is that the cost of scrap-booking is quite high, while some people in the world are suffering of hunger or have no homes.

Be aware of what is going on around you!

Entry 3 scrapbooking

Mindfulness meditation is emerged from Zen Buddhism.

 “The purpose of a daily mindfulness based meditation … is to simply practice witnessing and acknowledging whatever arises and the present moment without judging it. One’s attention is directed to anything real and tangible such as the breath or a thought, feeling or sound without any attempt to change it” Kabat-Zinn in (Gura, 2010, p.266).

Following this quotation, I focused on my activity with all my senses trying to interiorise everything I felt, smelt, heard or saw. I did not attempt to make any changes to what was happening, but just be aware of it and enjoy the here and now moments.

The most present smell was the smell of transparent glue, very strong chemical smell. Also, my cup of tea sitting on the desk beside me filled the room with the smell of infused mint, reminding me of summers in Romania.

After I finished gluing the photos to the scrapbook paper, I touched it, and I noticed the paper had turned wavy and uneven. The first thing that came to my mind was that it wasn’t a successful work. However, keeping in mind the concept of mindfulness, I thought I shouldn’t change it, but keep it as a memory of my first scrapbooking experience performed at home. While I was meditating on this experience, I looked outside my French doors and saw the rabbit jumping around my back yard, which lead me to a deeper connection with my feelings. That is because my pet rabbit is so peaceful and relaxes me a lot.

The loudest sound around me was a mixture of sounds made by an airplane, cars running on the street, birds singing in the trees, children playing in the school yard close to my house. Another sound, softer, was the sound of my breath, calm and peaceful. 
In conclusion, contemplation made my work so much more meaningful and made me feel at ease. It was an interesting and worthwile experience, reminding me not to take for granted small things that other people may not experience.

Ergonomics and ambiance

Entry 2 Srap-booking

Ergonomics in this context is not only a physical fit but is a fit between a person, occupation and environment. To understand ergonomics one needs the ability to “constantly make slight invisible adjustments to an activity to adapt to the needs of those taking part and ensure that it continues to work for its intended purpose” (Caulton and Dickson, 2007). This reference helped me to think about and understand on a deeper level how I adjusted the environment to suit my creative mood and activity. 

Just before I started writing this post I was determined to create a scrapbook page of memories from when my father visited from Romania. I noticed that I was missing some important tools that would help me accomplish this creation. This made me feel a little bit worried but I decided to go shopping. I felt very excited when I went to the store to curiously pick out the required tools. I had so many things to choose from but I was challenged because I also had to keep in mind that I was on a budget. For help I related to my past experience, the first time that I did scrapbooking in Tauranga. 

Once I got home and unpacked my bags I eagerly prepared my work desk. I had to turn on the light which gave me a sense of warmth. The ambiance was completed by the relaxing songs of Enigma playing softly in the background. It was nice smelling the glue and stationery. The floral patterns and colourful design of the paper used was reminding me of spring.

After a short tea break, I am sitting at my work station and with the feel of a burst of positive energy I am looking at the photos. All these changes helped me achieve my goal and made the activity meaningful.  Accomplishment and pride make me smile. Now that I have adjusted the environment to match the activity of scrapbooking, I am feeling creative and happy to have fulfilled today’s goal.

Sunday, 4 September 2011


Hello everyone!
 Entry 1 scrap-booking

We are back on campus this semester for more challenges, which will lead to a greater understanding of the world and its occupations.

I will be talking about an activity that I enjoy and the occupational implications of it, mindfulness, ergonomic, affordance and other such aspects.

I first discovered scrapbooking in July 2011. I was visiting one of my colleagues in Tauranga. She invited me to a party where the main attraction was a lady who presented scrapbooking as a business opportunity as well as a relaxing activity. She explained that the purpose of this activity is for people to document their meaningful memories. As described by Slagle (2006), the activity comes under the “big three” (p. 629), as an activity of leisure along with work and self-maintenance. Scrapbooking can be therapeutic and can develop positive thoughts and feelings. It can create ambience in itself. While participating “… we acquire skills,  … competencies, connect with others and our communities, and find purpose… and meaning in life” (Law, 2002, p. 640).

I was really enthusiastic about this activity. However, I did not want commit myself to it for financial purposes, all I wanted was a relaxing way for me to interact with my family and my loved ones and materialise the fun time that we had together.

The first time I tried scrapbooking was at that party. We shared the provided tools (puncher, corner rounder, stickers). Our work was contained in an album, the first page of which was provided to me. I really enjoyed it so I decided to continue. Therefore, I ordered two albums and started scrapbooking. The most precious moment for me was creating a double page scrapbook for my daughter’s birthday.  I had about 500 photos to choose from. It was so hard to choose from the beautiful photographs marking precious moments in my family’s history. It means so much to me going over the fun times we had together and sharing those experiences with my friend and her acquaintances.

I feel that scrapbooking can be used successfully in an OT setting, as it is a fun and (inter)active way of exploring memories. It requires motor skills, process skills and a positive mind. It can be performed by people of a variety of ages, and it provides the person who engages with this activity with the feeling of accomplishment and gives the opportunity to disconnect from the daily routine. It is also a great socialising opportunity and can gradually build people’s skills and competences.

Monday, 18 April 2011

Tutorial 3: Blog creation task

In week 3 of this course we set up our blogger account, a google account and constructed our blogs. Then we posted content from week 1 and 2 tutorials. We uploaded photos from our Flickr account.
It was a bit frustrating but very interesting to have my own Blog !

Tuesday, 5 April 2011

Tutorial 8: Assistive technology

         Tutorial 8: Assistive technology

             This week we had a lecture and a tutorial about assistive technology. We also had an occupational therapist and Kev from Star mobility presenting a few assistive technologies. Starr mobility website is a place to go when you need to look for assistive technology, this is their website
In this post I will define assistive technology and I than will write about one assistive device that I have seen in the class presentation.
An assistive device is anything that can be implemented to improve or increase functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. These can be equipment, a product system or any item that is custom made, commercialised or modified to suit someone’s personal needs (Cook & Hussey, 2000).
During the tutorial, Kev introduced the talking photo album. This device is an A3 size album, which has many pages.  It has the feature to record on each page for 10 seconds and each individual recording can be played back. It has a large visual area to display photos, stories, recipes and types of messages, and it has a loud speaker as well.
We had the opportunity to display photos and record step by step how to make a banana shake. Each individual page recording can be played back, deleted or replaced.
This scenario would be helpful for a person who has problems with short term memory and want to be involved in an activity. By using this assistive device, an activity can be completed and self-esteem can also increase.
Here is a website where technical description is and provides a short video as well.
Cook, A. M., & Hussey, S. M. (2000). Assistive technologies: principles and practice, USA: Mosby.
 Star Mobility & Disability Centre, (2011), Retrieved, April, 09, 2011, From,      
   Talking photo album, (2011), Retrieved, April , 12, 2011, From,

Tutorial 7: Linking to blogs of interest and exchanging comments

This is a record of one communication I made on another blog.
This is a result of the above communication.
Jones, L. (2011). Week 4. Retrieved April 12, 2011. from

Week 6 : The internet and online communities

In this post I will discuss the topic of bipolar disorder that is under the mental health umbrella and is characterised by mood swings of highs and lows. I will refer to three online communities that relate to this topic. A brief description of each community will be included as well as what they provide on their site. Potential ethical issues that can arise will be also discussed, as well as the benefits over traditional geographical community and what these communities lack or can provide. This topic can be of interest in occupational therapy practice.
An online community is a virtual community that is created online; this has members that are interested in a specific topic. An online community can be formed for the purpose of a communicating system where anyone can post information, or one where there is a restriction on the number of people who can initiate posts. Chat rooms, forums are types of online communities where people that know each other can communicate (Retrieved on 05 April 2011 from
1)     This is the first site that I will present and this is one description of the site The WebMD bipolar disorder Community gives users the ability to safely and easily connect with leading experts and others to discuss bipolar disorder-related topics”.   This site has an online community and promotes “Better information. Better life”  this in relation to bipolar disorder. It presents medical references, latest news, features, videos, slideshows & images, health tools, overviews & facts, the symptoms & types, diagnosis & tests, treatment & care, home remedies, finding help and a variety of helpful information that people with this disorder or their families and friends can access and learn and share experiences. Support groups are also in place and this facility can deliver information just by pushing a button on the computer. Try it out and find out about this disorder that affects so many people. Here is an example of a member of this community discussing, expressing, sharing and motivating other members
There are people, who do not feel comfortable to publicise their disorder, therefore, an online community can be a good start for them where they can educate themselves about their problem. They can access websites that are not in their geographical area and can share their personal circumstances with people unknown to them. However, this can also be negative as people with this disorder need constant support from people that are part of their environment.
This site is overlooked by experts in this disorder and can be said that it is safer than other similar sites. Ethical issues are clarified by the experts in discussions. In one of the discussions the expert clarified that purpose of this site  “….. I just want to make sure everyone is aware that webmd medical postings are not substitute for formal diagnosis or treating. Dr. G”
There is also a possibility that members would track the experts (doctors) phone numbers. To stop potential ethical issues the managers of this site introduced clear boundaries such as “No outside contact please”. Retrieved on 06 April 2011 from,

2)     Another online community I found today 05 April 2011 is on a site that intends to raise awareness of bipolar disorder. This site gives the opportunity, to those suffering or those who know someone that suffers or has suffered from bipolar disorder, to show their support. . These sites briefly explain what bipolar disorder means and defend people with this condition by asking people not to judge or stigmatise them because of diagnosis of mental health.
Members communicate with each other and support each other on this site. It can be accessed from anywhere in the world. It is amazing what online communities can offer these days.
This site is in collaboration with Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) and has a link to their main website   This link gives support to people who suffer from this disorder. The mission of this site is to improve the lives of people living with mood disorders. It has peer experts and doctors that can be contacted and who can give support.

3)     This is the last online community I will look at today. This is a Facebook page.
This website has a discussion forum that does not appear to be overlooked by an expert that can give medical support. There are members with bipolar disorder, they encounter the same symptoms and experience the same problems. This can reflect a lot of negative information and can be unsafe for some of the members. People from any part of the world can access this site and can influence each other negatively or positively.  The type of communication that is exchanged on this site can be found through this link
On Facebook, members can write anything they wish and some people can be hurt. Ethical issues can arise when some members are threatened. On the following site a person with bipolar disorder explains her negative experience with a “friend”. She was harassed and got to the point of wanting to hurt herself. The state police stepped in and quashed the problem. However, according to the victim, Facebook is still a place where her “friend” can publish unpleasant information about her
This search gave me the opportunity to learn as an occupational therapy student to take in consideration what type of sites could be safe for my future clients to visit. I learned about the type of sites that could give adequate support and education to my future clients as well. Online communities can be positive and negative tools in occupational therapy practice and they need to be evaluated thoroughly before people become members.

Bipolar, (2011), Retrieved, April, 11, 2011 from,
Bipolar Disorder Awareness (2011), Retrieved, April, 11, 2011
Bipolor disorder, (2011), Retrieved, April, 11, 2011, from
Bipolar or borderline(BPD), (2011), Retrieved, April, 11, 2011, from
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance, (2011), Retrieved, April, 11, 2011 from,
No Oustide Contact Please Read*, (2010), Retrieved, April, 11, 2011, from
Online community (2011), Retrieved April, 04, 2011, from
Peer connections (2011), Retrieved March, 28, 2011, from 
WebMd Better Information. Better Health.(2011), Retrieved, April, 11, 2011, from   

Friday, 25 March 2011

Week 5 Video Production Session

You tube is a website where people can upload and share videos.  Movie clips, TV clips, music clips, amateur content such as video blogging are uploaded by any individuals. There is a filtering in place and potentially offensive content can be viewed only by registered over 18 years of age and above (Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from .

You tube is place where people can learn and explore new thinks.
With this occasion I would like to use online clips on YouTube that explain Arthritis, the most common disability that affects people after a certain age. In my placement as an occupational therapist student, based in community setting I met many people who suffered from Arthritis. Occupational therapists that are based in a community setting are aiming to assist clients with arthritis by taking in consideration their safety and enhance their independence.

1.    Here is a clip that briefly explains Osteoarthritis and its possible evolution.

    2. The following clip presents a stander bed cane that promotes safety and prevents falls for the elderly. In my placement occupational therapist helped many clients to achieve safety and independence in their home. These were achieved by making available to the client a stander bed cane.  

     3.  Toilet aids and commodes are other type of equipment that promotes safety and comfort to people who experiences difficulties in sitting on and getting off the toilet, due to reduced range of motion and/or pain. In New Zealand people can buy these devices or obtain them through funding.

    4. Stocking aids provides independence to people with arthritis.

    5. Jar opener is a very used device by people with arthritis.

    There are many other devices funded or for sale on the market that can ease peoples life, the ones that suffer from arthritis.

    Culinare one touch jar opener - amazing! (2008),

    Etac-Socky-stocking-aids-ENG.wmv, (2010), Retrieved, March, 22, 2011, from

    Stander Bed Cane, Promote elderly safety, prevent falls (2009), Retrieved, March, 22, 2011, from

    Understanding Arthritis (Arthritis #1) (2008), Retrieved, March, 22, 2011, from
    Video Review: Toilet Aids and Commodes (2010), Retrieved, March, 22, 2011, from

    You Tube, (2011), Retrieved, March, 22, 2011, from

    Saturday, 19 March 2011

    Tutorial 4: Video production session

    My involvement in the first movie production of 30 seconds was achieved by following the instruction given in class. Patrina, Katy, Lisa, Lyn and I were part of the group. We had to choose a letter from the alphabet and send a message to the audience by acting and not using any language.

    We decided to use the letter S and our first hint was created by a letter S on the ground made up by Patrina, Lyn and I.  Lisa and Katy were filming us. We wanted the audience to guess what we were doing. The movie was modified with a movie maker and was enhanced with special effects and music. It was real fun working with the group.

    Wednesday, 2 March 2011

    Tutorial 2: Digital imaging

    A digital image is the illustration of a two-dimensional image with a finite set of digital values that are known as picture elements or pixels. It can be created by a digital camera, scanners, airborne radar, seismographic profiling, coordinate-measuring machines and others,
    Not long ago, only some families owned a camera. Today people have a variety of digital options to capture images. These are video cameras, laptops, handheld camera phones and others. People use technology for different occupational purposes such as work, play, entertainment, personal and other daily activities. Images can be distributed, manipulated and used with a purpose.
    My digital camera is mainly used in the family. It has a lens system and it has a variety of functions such as; low light, iso-speed, self-time, digital and optical 3 x zoom, delete button, red eye, USB port, language, mode (day and night) flash, date & time, blink detection and other functions that I have not discovered yet. It is very easy to use once you are familiar with it. The photos that are taken can be transferred onto the lap top via a USB cable. The computer provides instructions when downloading the images.  Apparently there are some important pieces of information to know when you buy a camera. If you follow this link you can find some useful information
    The video camera that I have is very simple to use as well. However when it comes to transferring movies on the computer or CD disks, I find it very challenging. This camera was gifted and was brought to me from Europe. I am trying to blame the software being different over there to New Zealand. Now I am going to watch some tutorials, which could help me with my video camera that I have locked up in one of my wardrobes for the last two years. If you are interested to see how a tutorial teaches you to use a camera, you can view this link as well
    Another electronic device that I am comfortable using is a cell phone with a built in camera. Most cell phones have this type of set up. By pushing only a button on the camera side, photos are taken. Furthermore, connecting it to the computer via a USB cable, photos can be loaded and printed when I want. Here is a site which offers a wide range of cell phones with built in camera option
    An interesting electronic device that has digital imaging is a cell phone, watch and camera all in one
    Today’s digital camera technology has advantages and disadvantages. An image can be obtained very fast, can be modified easily and stored with a click of few buttons. However, this data can be easily lost if a computer or other devices that store the images are damaged. Software can also be out of date and images are difficult to access.
    Ethical issues can arise, when people use digital images inappropriately. The issues can arise when people’s privacy, ownership or informed consent for recording and distributing of images are not seriously taken in consideration and disturbing images are published in the media, in schools or in day to day life. One example is the paparazzi, who are capturing images that can produce disturbance in some people’s personal life
    There are debates on whether it is ethical or not to use “nanny cameras” as this is believed to be a parent’s right.
    The occupational therapist has to take in consideration the way digital images are used. The client and his/her family have to be comfortable with the context in which images are used. For example, if an OT wants to record the way a client makes a cup of tea, she/he needs to ask for consent. Such a recording can also be uploaded on websites that are intended for the general public.  Therefore to exclude any negative repercussions, ethical issues needs to be considered. Occupational therapists use images in some treatment plans to educate their clients. A good example of a digital image is about the correct technique of ”Retrieving Items while Using a Rolling Walker".
    Panasonic VDR-D50 Video upload tutorial, (2008), Retrieved, March, 18, 2011 from
    Digital Photography 101 with TigerTV Host Logan, (2007), Retrieved, March,18, 2011 from
    Digital image – Definition, (2010), Retrieved, March, 19, 2011 from
    Camera cell phones, (2010), Retrieved, March, 19, 2011 from
    Cell Phone Watch with Camera and Bluetooth, (2008), Retrieved, March, 19, 2011 from
    Use of 'nanny cams' raises issues of ethics, parents' rights, (2005), Retrieved, March, 19, 2011 from

     Retrieving Items while Using a Rolling Walker, (2010) Retrieved, March, 19, 2011 from

    Tuesday, 1 March 2011

    Tutorial 1: Information Technology and Ethical Issues

    Information technology, shortened as IT. It is about anything that relates to computing technology. We live in the "information age" information technology is part of people's everyday life ( Information technology is the communication used with electronics and microelectronics. Examples of these are: laptops, i-pods, cell phone and others. People use technology for different occupational purposes such as work, play, entertainment, personal and other daily activities.   
    Electronic devices are everywhere and can have negative or positive consequences.

    Addiction and aggression can be repercussions of using technologies.  Early age dependence on technology is great. People can get very frustrated when they are deprived from devices. It’s very interesting how parents and children make a big deal when children are going to camp and they are not allowed to take their electronic gadgets (cell phone, I-pods and other).

    On the other hand OT should keep up with the new technology as this is an excellent tool for gathering information on, and communicating with their clients. For example, some clients, who are dependent on others, can use technology for online shopping. Others, who do not belong to a group, can be taught how to use online communities, where they can interact with other people. One example is when an occupational therapists implements images in some treatment situations. This could be a video of the correct technique for "Retrieving Items while Using a Rolling Walker".

    I am personally both frustrated and excited when I am in the possession of a new device. I am comfortable using a cell phone, a lap top, printer, fax and other devices. I feel that by using a variety of devices my family and I can benefit from more things from life because I can finish my work faster, I can pass messages faster, and I can be the same as others. There are times when I am experience difficulties and it is very frustrating; however I do not give up. I just wish that I have more time to allocate to the study of different types of devices, because I am curious to learn new things and I personally think that it can be real fun!

    When using information technology ethical issues and intellectual property needs to be considered as well. Ethical issues can arise, when people use digital images inappropriately. The issues can arise when people’s privacy, ownership or informed consent for recording and distributing of images are not seriously taken in consideration. If you follow this link  you can see people’s opinions about Google map ethical consideration. In the above example, social justice and informed consent are ethical implications that can arise; this is when people can be recognised in photos taken on the street. Another ethical issue is related to intellectual property.

    Intellectual property is the property of someone’s mind or intellect. This can be someone’s good idea, invention, original design or trade mark. In other words this is the representation of someone’s proprietary knowledge . Therefore when someone takes the credit for someone else’s idea, by not referencing the original source, it is considered as stealing.
    Social justice is the equal application of laws following the natural law that all individuals, regardless of differences in ethnicity, gender, possession, religion, race, etc., are to be treated in the same way and without discrimination

    Informed consent is the decision made by a person, received from a lawyer, medical staff, journalist or others, which is based on adequate information and explanation about the material risks of and reasonably available alternatives to the offered service (Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from ).  The history of informed consent is presented in the following clip 


    Informed Consent - History of Informed Consent, (2008). Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from

    Informed Consent Law & Legal Definition, (2011), Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from

    IT (Information Technology), (2006). Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from

    Retrieving Items while Using a Rolling Walker, (2010). Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from

    Social Justice (2011), Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from

    Verdnock, M & Ryan, S. (2008). Mainstream technology as an occupational therapy tool: technophobe or technogeek? British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 71(6). p253-256

    What is Intelectual property? (2011), Retrieved March, 18, 2011 from